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What are the causes for the pigmentation of the skin?
Melanin is a pigment that is responsible for the colour of your skin. Uneven skin tone can be presented either as hypopigmentation or hyperpigmentation, wherein your skin appears to be lighter or darker in a few areas respectively.
There could be underlying reasons/factors for any of them to occur. Hyperpigmentation wherein few areas appear darker occurs because of increased melanin production. It could occur mostly because of constant exposure to the sun which is one of the common causes, whereas other causes could be Melasma seen in Pregnant women or in diseases like Addison's disease or usage of some drugs too.
Hypopigmentation occurs rarely can occur either as vitiligo where white patches appear on the skin, or can also be seen as a consequence of infections or rashes or allergies or even burns.
Many people have constant exhaustion against the uneven tone & very commonly hyperpigmentation of the skin, especially during hot climatic situations. Let's knock ourselves now, to combat the pigmentation of the skin and try to get rid of it. We have got the best serums & creams to address the hyperpigmentation and will explain in detail about each ingredient that would help your skin attain an even tone, and reduce the appearance of evident dark spots that would in turn work based on your skin type & concern.
- Lactic acid: It is mainly used to treat dark spots & uneven tone/complexion caused because of hyperpigmentation, and also the reasons that contribute to dullness of skin. Others include the reduced appearance of pores, which helps in the elimination of accumulated dead cells of the skin by increasing cell turnover. Around 12% of Lactic acid usage makes the skin thicker & firmer too. So. “One should always use Lactic acid” because of its inherent properties of attaining even-toned & healthy skin.
- Kojic acid:- 2 % Kojic Acid reduce skin pigmentation as it can penetrate through the skin & can reduce blemishes as well as dark spots and has an added advantage to fight the signs of ageing of skin too. It also minimizes the recurrence of discolouration & lightens the skin tone in a maximum of 3-4 weeks.
- Vitamin C:- One of the important antioxidants & being the most popular as its a potent ingredient when it comes to glowing skin. Yet, it battles the discolouration & uneven tone due to sun exposure with added benefits of brightening the skin & reducing the dark spots. It increases collagen production & also can decrease melanin synthesis and thereby helps to decrease the dark spots or even the pregnancy melasma by fading the hyperpigmentation.
- Azelaic Acid:- A magic Ingredient & naturally occurring acid derived from barley or wheat. Its more effective in discolouration of the skin caused by sun exposure, previous acne, or even melasma. It inhibits an enzyme called tyrosinase, which is important for the production of melanin in the skin. So, to fade the hyperpigmentation, Azelaic Acid can be considered a hero ingredient too.
- Hydroquinone (Alpha arbutin):- It reduces the melanocytes which produce the melanin & thus it's a magic skin lightening ingredient. It can also help the hyperpigmentation as it bleaches the skin, thereby providing the effect of skin lightening enchantment.
- Niacinamide:- A form of Vitamin B3, also can treat by reducing dark spots which are attributed probably to its inherent nature to increase collagen production.